The Inhuman. Reflections on Time. J can-Francois Lyotard. Translated by Geofirey Bennington and Rachel Bowlby l] g Polity Press. In this major study, now available in paperback, Lyotard develops his analysis of the phenomenon of postmodernity, and examines the philosophy of Kant. Against this notion of the inhuman, akin to what Lyotard years earlier had called the figural, is the inventiveness of.

Author: Arakinos Tejind
Country: Trinidad & Tobago
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Technology
Published (Last): 8 July 2008
Pages: 311
PDF File Size: 20.7 Mb
ePub File Size: 18.99 Mb
ISBN: 581-2-83905-599-3
Downloads: 99016
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Migor

Lyotard makes his own distinction between the categories of modern and postmodern in art, however, in a couple of ways. Julian Pefanis and Morgan Thomas Sydney: Lyotard interprets these two tendencies of capitalism in terms of the theory of dissimulation.

The Inhuman: Reflections on Time by Jean-François Lyotard

Lyotadr his writings of the early s, he rejects what he regards as theological underpinnings of both Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud: For Lyotard, this fact has a deep political import, since politics claims to be based on accurate representations of reality.

Science and technology are prime candidates for this attempted hegemony, since they contribute to the growth of capital. The critique of reason and representation shift in Lyotard’s postmodern philosophy from a focus on the figurative and libidinal forces which disrupt systems to an analysis of incommensurability in language and the limits of the rational faculty. The discursive is the term used for reason and representation here; it is the rational system of representation by lgotard that forms a system of oppositions.

Lyotard’s interest in Malraux may be explained through the commonalities they share, in particular a problematic relation to the political and an attempted solution to this problem through art.

Nevertheless, Lyotard judged phenomenology to be ultimately reactionary, unable to respond to the ways in which the economic relations of production produce given conscious states, that is, how subjectivity is founded in objectivity. An aesthetic theory focusing on the avant-garde deeply informs both major phases of his inuuman thought the libidinal and the postmodern. To attempt the latter, Lyotard claims throughout his later works, is an attempt to control and therefore escape time: In Lyotard’s postmodern philosophy the sublime is the feeling that indicates the limits of reason and representation.


To follow Lyotard’s concepts lyotar may be best to familiarize kyotard self with some post modern philosophy and general media theory. Lyotard, then, argues for forms of avant-gardism that seek what is unpresentable in the present.

Lyotard calls the way phrases are linked together in series, one after the other, the concatenation of phrases. The “denotative” is an utterance which attempts to correctly identify the object or referent to which lyotaard refers such as “Snow is white”.

knhuman Lyotard accepts that performativity is a legitimate criterion for technology, but argues that it is not proper to science. That is, they open up new ways of thinking that are unpresentable in current language games. This was an important moment as Lyotard lost faith in the all-encompassing philosophy of Marxism, which offered, especially in the variant of the French Communist Party, a single key to history and its end.

Crome, Keith, lyotarrd, Lyotard and Greek Thought: Povilas Marozas rated it really liked it Jun 26, An event, if it occurs, is not simply unforseeable within any of these, but in fact explodes our ability to represent them within any language game or phrase regimen. Phenomenology Lyotard’s first book, published in unhuman, is a short introduction to and examination of phenomenology. It took twice as long to read, because it was so dense that I had to read it Perhaps Lyotard is a little bit obtuse.

With this said, I must also observe that this work is of vital importance in a period when lhotard of all stripes attempts to rewrite, and often simply deny, the occurrence of historical and cultural events, i.

Jean François Lyotard

University of Paris B. Most famously, in La Condition postmoderne: An example would be the way political institutions channel desires to change society away from violent, disruptive eruptions towards more moderate, less disruptive modes of action.

According to the “narrative” of science, however, only knowledge which is legitimated is legitimate – i. This put him at odds with the dominant structuralist and post-structuralist emphasis on language, and as the s began and disappointment set in that May gave rise to inhumam in terms of substantive change, Lyotard, like others, looked to aesthetics and sensuous relations for their revolutionary potential.


Furthermore, the process of painting exemplifies the ambiguously passive yet active way in which Lyotard sees the release of libidinal energies as most effective. Just as pagan religions believe in a number of different gods rather than just one God, Lyotard’s pagan philosophy represents a concern for pluralism and lyotxrd terms he uses synonymously to oppose the idea of universality.

A differend depends upon a distinction drawn between groups that itself depends upon the heterogeneity of language games and genres of discourse. According to Lyotard, representational theory follows this model by placing the reality that representation refers to in a transcendent realm.

This is what a wrong would be: Lyotard develops a complex set of figures to describe how this process takes place.

University of Minnesota Press, The turn from the libidinal to the pagan and the postmodern continued a concern with events and the limits of representation, but concerned two key changes: On the one hand, any representation will miss something of the event, and on the other, non-rational forces such as feelings and desires will arise to disrupt rational schemas of thought. Furthermore, Lyotard draws attention to the fact that reason tends to operate with structured systems of concepts which exclude the sensual and emotional, but that these exclusions can never be entirely maintained.

Lyotard argues that legitimation by performativity is against the interests of research. Knowledge inhuamn power are simply two sides of the same question: Who will determine which channels or data are forbidden?

Open Preview See a Problem?

But where Deleuze and Guattari differentiate fascistic and liberating forms of desire, Lyotard argues it is impossible to do so. Open access to the SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative.