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Elektor – Circuits

If the input is low then N2 will block, but the output xircuits N1 will be high so N3 will pass the low frequency signal from the oscillator built around A2, Depending on the input state one or other of these signals is fed through N4 to the input of a differentiator built around A4.

Since the supply voltage alters the output voltage of the various waveforms, and hence elekttor sine pu- rity, the circuit should be operated from a stable 6 V supply. When power is applied, the relay will pull in.

The resulting positive voltage is applied to a com- parator! The 2 ms pulses xircuits useful for checking the bandwidth of the Y amplifiers and the compen- sation of the Y attenuators and also for cali- brating oscilloscope probes. The output signal of the tuner is fed to the input of Al via sensitivity control PI and C3.

This charges up C4 via Dl, holding the input of N2 high which causes the output to remain low. As a rule of thumb allow about 10 M F per mA, The base current can be found by dividing the maximum output cur- rent by the gain of the transistor. The original tape monitor switch if fitted can be discarded and replaced by S2, while an extra hole must be drilled in the front panel for S3.

301 Circuits (300 Series) by Elektor Electronics Paperback Book The Fast

If this output is high the clock fre- quency is low and vice versa. An initial bias of about 10 V from the unregulated supply is provided by these components. A simple RC network with a break frequency of roughly 5 kHz should do the trick.


Fur- thermore, a choice of seven different zener cur- rents is provided, which allows the zener voltage wlektor be plotted against current. The circuit consists simply of an op-amp connec- ted as a voltage follower whose quiescent output voltage can be set to any desired level within the output range of the op-amp.

The character of the sound is influenced by two factors; the Q of the filter, which may be varied by changing the value of R2, and the duration of the trigger pulse, which may be adjusted using PI. When the upper pair of contacts is bridged the input of N1 is taken high, so the output goes high.

The frequency range of the circuit runs from 0. The value of R5 is dependent on the supply volt- age used and should be 33 ohms for voltages between 9 V and 15 V, 68 ohms for 15 V to 25 V and circuitts for 25 V to 35 V.

The circuit diagram of the voltage comparator. The output of A4 will thus swing down to 0 V, turning on the stereo decoder.

At low supply voltages it may also be found that the frequency changes with supply voltage due to variations in the output characteristics of the op- amps. Cl will thus discharge at a slower rate, making the interval Tl longer and reducing V 2If Vi is greater than V 2 then the output circuis IC2 will ramp negative i.

The ac- companying figure shows a circuit diagram of a simple and reliable FSK modulator which has the advantage of cirucits no calibration. A typical high-power wirewound re- sistor consists of a single layer of resistance wire makes one sweep of the screen, A positive-going trigger pulse is available via R4, or a negative- going trigger pulse is available from the output of N4 via R5, The resulting display is shown in figure 2 S four different input voltages being fed to the inputs in this case.

After rectifi- cation the signal can be measured on a voltmeter to elektof at which setting of the IF trans- former coil the amplitude of the signal is greatest. Performance The output voltage of the specified electret cap- sule is typically 6. Using the in a low-voltage high-current supply, with an external series transistor oper- ating from the same supply rail as thein- variably results in excessive dissipation in the series transistor.


Elektor – 301 Circuits

Pseudo random running lamp V If a number of the outputs of a shift register are fed back in a certain fashion via an EXQR gate to the data input, then the Q outputs of the regis- ter will run through the maximum possible num- ber of mutually different logic states. TJ re- ceives a bias voltage from the supply via R4 and draws current from the supply through the zener under test.

Using this simple cir- cuit, up to four voltages can be compared or measured on any oscilloscope that has a DC in- put and an external trigger socket. It operates by feeding a known constant current into the base of the transistor and measuring the collector current.

Capacitor C3, which is part of the trigger circuit of Tril, is elektir charged rapidly by capacitor C2 via resistor R3. A higher supply voltage is permissible, if it is easier 52 2 to obtain 4. A transformer with a circuts higher secondary voltage can be used, provided that R1 is uprated to limit the current through this resistor to mA.

Super zener This circuit is intended primarily to produce a stable reference voltage in battery operated equipment designed for minimum current con- sumption, Despite the fact that only 1 mA flows through the circuite the output voltage showed a fluctuation of less than 1 mV for supply voltage variations of 10 to 30 volts.

The theoretical currents for the various combinations of SI, S2 and S3. However, no design for a corresponding car ammeter has so far appeared. This design is based upon an integrated frequency-to-voltage con- verter, the Raytheon